Eg. Wow! The brave boy followed a snake in the garden and quickly killed it.
|Wow!||Expresses the strong feeling of the speaker.||Interjection|
|brave||Modifies or adds something new to the meaning of the noun, ‘boy’.||Adjective|
|boy||Name of a person||Noun|
|followed||Shows the action done by the subject.||Verb|
|a||Indefinite Article. **||Adjective|
|snake||Name of a living thing or animal||Noun|
|in||Shows the relationship between the boy and the garden||Preposition|
|garden||Name of a place||Noun|
|quickly||Modifies or adds something new to the meaning of the verb, ‘quickly’.||Adverb|
|killed||Shows the action done by the subject.||Verb|
|it||Stands instead of the noun, ‘snake’.||Pronoun|
Can you name anything that comes across you? If you can, that name is a noun.
It can be the name of people, places, things, and ideas. So noun is a ‘naming word’.
Eg. Obama, President, Washington, city, apple, table, food, flower, music, love, honesty, beauty, etc.
Nouns have only two roles; (a) subject of a sentence (b) object of a sentence.
Eg. Tom plays soccer.
‘Tom told Tom’s mother that Tom would not take up the job Tom’s father had found for Tom.’
The noun, Tom, is repeatedly used here to make this sentence looks awkward. It can be modified by substituting the repeated nouns with appropriate words.
‘Tom told his mother that he would not take up the job his father had found for him.’
The words used here in the place of the noun are called pronouns.
Eg. I, me, he, him, his, she, her, herself, you, it, that, they, each, few, many, who, whoever, whose, someone, everybody, etc
Verb tells, (a) what the subject does, (b) what the subject is, and (c) what happens to the subject. So verb is a ‘telling word’. It is a word or phrase that describes an action, condition, or experience.
Eg. (a) Tom plays soccer. (b) Tom is a student. (c) Tom broke his leg.
- ‘Tom is a doctor.’
- ‘Tom is a good doctor’
In sentence (a), Tom is a doctor like any other doctor and nothing special could be attributed to the noun, ‘doctor.’
In sentence (b), the word ‘good’ modifies or adds something more to the meaning of the noun, ’doctor.’ So ‘good’ is an adjective.
Adjectives describe nouns by answering one of these three questions:
- What kind is it (noun)? Eg. clever puppy
- How many (nouns) are there? Eg. five puppies
- Which one (noun) is it? black puppy
- ‘Tom walks in the garden.’
- ‘Tom walks slowly in the garden.’
- ‘Tom walks very slowly in the garden.’
- ‘Tom is an extremely slow walker.’
|(a)||Tom walks like any other person who walks in the garden|
|(b)||the word ‘slowly’ modifies or adds something more to the meaning of the verb, ‘walks’|
|(c)||the word ‘very’ modifies or adds something more to the meaning of the adverb, ’slowly|
|(d)||the word ‘extremely’ modifies or adds something more to the meaning of the adjective, ’slow’|
Here the words, ‘slowly’, ‘very’, and ‘extremely’ are adverbs.
Adverbs describe a verb, another adverb or an adjective by answering how, how often, when, or where an action took place.
Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to adjectives.
Eg. happily, perfectly, highly, quickly, suddenly, loudly, beautifully, etc.
Where can a puppy go? Preposition describes wherever a puppy can go!
The puppy goes above the bed.
The puppy goes across the road.
The puppy goes around the house
The puppy goes below the table.
The puppy goes near the mother.
The words above, across, around, below, and near are prepositions.
A preposition is a word that usually comes before a noun or a pronoun to show its (noun or pronoun’s) relationship to another word in the sentence. They are locators of time and place.
Eg. about, against, along, among, at, before, behind, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, of, off, on, since, to, toward, through, under, until, up, upon, with and within.
In a restaurant, you will be in trouble if there are no conjunctions! You have to tell the bearer. “Please give me a burger.” “Please give me a coke too.”
Use of a conjunction will make this communication more efficient.
Eg. “Please give me a burger and a coke.”
Here the word ‘and’ glues together ‘burger’ and ‘coke’.
A conjunction is a word that connects or joins together words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. As it is the glue that holds them together, we can term it as a ‘gluing word’.
- Coordinating conjunctions: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, Soon. The acronym, FANBOYS stands for the main coordinating conjunctions.
- Subordinating conjunctions: Since, Because, Although, As, Before, Once, Though, Until, Whether, etc.
- Correlative Conjunctions: Both…. and, either….or, neither…. nor, not only…. but also, etc.
Interjection expresses a strong feeling. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence. It is usually followed by a comma, stop or exclamation mark.
Eg. Alas! She is dead.
Oh! Do not leave me alone.
Wow! I can’t believe this is done by you.