- Simple Sentence
India is my country.
She has won the medal.
In each of these sentences, there is only one Finite verb.
What does it mean?
It means there is only one clause. If there is only one clause in a sentence, that clause is definitely an independent clause. In grammar, an independent clause is called Main Clause or Principal Clause.
A sentence with one main clause is known as a simple sentence. So both the examples are examples of simple sentences.
- Compound Sentence
- He is both a poet and an orator.
- He must resign or he will be suspended.
Sentence 1 is a combination of two parts.
- He is a poet
- He is an orator
These two parts are joined by the construction ‘and’.
In sentence 2 also, the same system works with a different conjunction ‘or’.
More such main clauses can be introduced.
Therefore look at the conclusion: if a sentence has two or more main clauses, it is known as a Compound sentence.
- Complex Sentence.
- Dimple said that she wanted to be a doctor.
- Where there is a will, there is a way.
In sentence 1, we find two clauses.
- Dimple said
- That she wanted to be a doctor.
Sentence (a.) can stand on its own. It is the main clause.
But sentence (b.) depends on Sentence (a.) for complete meaning.
Therefore it is a Dependent or Subordinate Clause.
In sentence 2 also, the same system is at work.
- There is way (MC)
- Where there is a will (SC)
We can introduce more subordinate clauses, but one main clause only.
A sentence with only one MC and one or more SC is called a Complex Sentence.
- Compound- Complex Sentence.
When I heard the cry, I rushed to the spot and saved the children from the dog.
- I rushed to the spot (MC)
- and I saved the children from the dog (MC)
- when I heard the cry (SC)
A sentence with 2 MCs and one or more SCs can be called a compound-complex sentence.